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Apparently, Dad, and Fashion: 110ROGER ZELAZNY 44 your purpose and you had to die. They left us small rights, we should have killed you--and you know it ng you with your life forfeit for attem it my lip. There were many things I might say. But THE HAND OF OBERON something approximating the truth, he did have a point. And I k Shadow physically in a somewhat similar fashion. He lays his min place he would visit, forms a kind of mental doorway, and simp steps through. For that matter, I believe he can sometimes tell what peopl thinking It is almost as if he has himself become some sort of livin these things because I have seen him do them. Near the enc ahen we had him under surveillance in the palace he had eluded us onc is was the time he traveled to the shadow Earth and ha times We did not yet know that he could summon things through Shadov he became aware that you had escaped your confinemen e summoned a horrid beast which attacked Caine, who was then his bood "Eric," he said, "figured that your eyesight might eventhually be knowing the way we regenerate-given time. It was a vety deet he can travel through Shadow with his mind, tha he seeks in Shadow, and then bring it not understand the power that he possesses," he said, "but it i chair locate what anyone's satisfaction-exce a move to sure his own continued reign beyond the t And I wil tell you frankly that he simply wanted to imprion vor an act of will without moving from the chair, and he ca pt for killing you. That would have been tor are "The whose idea was the blinding?" He as silent again for a long while. Then he spoke very sodil on oubls f Bedlam. After his recapture, one of us remained wit me out, please. It was mine, and it may have saved inst you had to be tantamount to death, ot their bet some future time. They could have used your Trump b thi t in the ibary when we brought him back. I which I do not understand re we could, and I did not see him again you, or they could have used it to free you in order to another move against Eric. Blinded, however, there was and you were of no use for an you by taking you out of the picture for a time, and it saved us from a noNot tota egregious act which might one day be held against us. As we saw t, he e once, wealy t totaly, then.," he said no choice. It was the only thing we could do. There could be no Fiona has similar strengths, and I believe Bleys did also. Between th of them, they could apparently annul most of Brand's power while the a case, I wonder how they managed to confine him at all?" ng e th r a time, have in mind Not totlly," I said. "He got a message to Random. In fact, he reache leniency either, or we might be suspected of having some use for gnke though the deteones The moment you assumed any such semblance of value you would hre heWht do you know of all their byplay with me-con a dead man. The most we could do was look the other way wheneve lil me, saving me." Rein contrived to comfort you. That was all that could be done. know of all their byplay with me-confining me, trying That I do not understand," he said, "except that it was part of the pow trugle within their own group. They had had a falling out amongst ther whe, and one side or the other had some use for you. So, naturally, o had ecover your sight that quickly, nor that you would be able to ou did. How did you manage it?" tleeas tying to kill you while the oth d couse, Bleys got the most mileage out of you, in that attack he launched "Does Macy's tell Gimbel's?" I said. shadow Earth, Well hati wWhat Brand told me, but it jibes with all sorts of secon "I said-never mind. What do you know of Brand's imprisommet He regarded me once more. "All I know is that there was some sort of falling out withoide afraid to let him run loose. When we freed him from their compm And you said you feared him enough to to l y now, after all this time, when all of this is history and the plen at tht a he ted again? He was weak, virtually helpless. Wathamk Tla you countenance Fiona in Amber," 1 said. "In fact, you are mo sosy mles id of us all. Pity Dad was always k the particulars. For some reason, Bleys and Fiona were afad d was apparently more afraid of having prisonment-Fiona Courne, he said, smling, "I have always been very fond of Fior ed. literatureandtrees:🌱
Apparently, Dad, and Fashion: 110ROGER ZELAZNY
 44
 your purpose and you had to die. They left us small
 rights, we should have killed you--and you know it
 ng you with your life forfeit for attem
 it my lip. There were many things I might say. But
 THE HAND OF OBERON
 something approximating the truth, he did have a point. And I k
 Shadow physically in a somewhat similar fashion. He lays his min
 place he would visit, forms a kind of mental doorway, and simp
 steps through. For that matter, I believe he can sometimes tell what peopl
 thinking It is almost as if he has himself become some sort of livin
 these things because I have seen him do them. Near the enc
 ahen we had him under surveillance in the palace he had eluded us onc
 is was the time he traveled to the shadow Earth and ha
 times We did not yet know that he could summon things through Shadov
 he became aware that you had escaped your confinemen
 e summoned a horrid beast which attacked Caine, who was then his bood
 "Eric," he said, "figured that your eyesight might eventhually be
 knowing the way we regenerate-given time. It was a vety deet
 he can travel through Shadow with his mind, tha
 he seeks in Shadow, and then bring it
 not understand the power that he possesses," he said, "but it i
 chair locate what
 anyone's satisfaction-exce
 a move to sure his own continued reign beyond the t
 And I wil tell you frankly that he simply wanted to imprion vor
 an act of will without moving from the chair, and he ca
 pt for killing you. That would have been tor
 are
 "The whose idea was the blinding?"
 He as silent again for a long while. Then he spoke very sodil on
 oubls f
 Bedlam. After his recapture, one of us remained wit
 me out, please. It was mine, and it may have saved
 inst you had to be tantamount to death, ot their bet
 some future time. They could have used your Trump b
 thi
 t in the ibary when we brought him back. I
 which I do not understand
 re we could, and I did not see him again
 you, or they could have used it to free you in order to
 another move against Eric. Blinded, however, there was
 and you were of no use for an
 you by taking you out of the picture for a time, and it saved us from a noNot tota
 egregious act which might one day be held against us. As we saw t, he e once, wealy t totaly, then.," he said
 no choice. It was the only thing we could do. There could be no
 Fiona has similar strengths, and I believe Bleys did also. Between th
 of them, they could apparently annul most of Brand's power while the
 a case, I wonder how they managed to confine him at all?"
 ng
 e th
 r a time,
 have in mind
 Not totlly," I said. "He got a message to Random. In fact, he reache
 leniency either, or we might be suspected of having some use for gnke though the deteones
 The moment you assumed any such semblance of value you would hre heWht do you know of all their byplay with me-con
 a dead man. The most we could do was look the other way wheneve lil me, saving me."
 Rein contrived to comfort you. That was all that could be done.
 know of all their byplay with me-confining me, trying
 That I do not understand," he said, "except that it was part of the pow
 trugle within their own group. They had had a falling out amongst ther
 whe, and one side or the other had some use for you. So, naturally, o
 had
 ecover your sight that quickly, nor that you would be able to
 ou did. How did you manage it?"
 tleeas tying to kill you while the oth
 d couse, Bleys got the most mileage out of you, in that attack he launched
 "Does Macy's tell Gimbel's?" I said.
 shadow Earth,
 Well hati wWhat Brand told me, but it jibes with all sorts of secon
 "I said-never mind. What do you know of Brand's imprisommet
 He regarded me once more.
 "All I know is that there was some sort of falling out withoide
 afraid to let him run loose. When we freed him from their compm
 And you said you feared him enough to
 to l
 y now, after all this time, when all of this is history and the plen at tht a he
 ted again? He was weak, virtually helpless. Wathamk
 Tla you countenance Fiona in Amber," 1 said. "In fact, you are mo
 sosy mles id of us all. Pity Dad was always
 k the particulars. For some reason, Bleys and Fiona were afad
 d
 was apparently more afraid of having
 prisonment-Fiona
 Courne, he said, smling, "I have always been very fond of Fior
 ed.
literatureandtrees:🌱

literatureandtrees:🌱

Anaconda, Click, and Definitely: FRENCHH RESOURCES MASTERPOST by studyvet scholarc: As a student learning French, I thought it would be neat to offer French resources not only for myself, but for other French learners! Learning Websites Duolingo  Bonjour Babbel ieLanguages TalkInFrench TheFrenchTutorial FrenchCrazy TheFrenchExperiement FrenchByFrench Memrise Busuu LanguagesOnline Lingvist Dictionaries Checkers Bonpatron (Checker) Languagetool (Checker) Reverso (Checker) Linguee (Dictionary) Reverso Dictionary (Dictionary/Checker) Collins Dictionary (Dictionary) Wordreference (Dictionary) Linternaute (Dictionary) Larousse (Dictionary) Pronunciation Frenchcrazy English vs. French Letter Pronounciation FSI Language TalkInFrench Pronunciation PDF Phonetique PronunciationGuide Fluentu Grammar Basics Contractions Possessive Determiners Indefinite Articles Definite Articles Demonstrative Determiners Interrogatives Partitive Articles Prepositions Conjunctions Conjugating Words (-ER, -IR, -RE; regular irregular) + examples Accent Marks Imparfait vs Passe Compose Imparfait vs Passe Compose 2 Passé Composé (past tense) Futur Proche (near future, using aller) Future Tense Feminine Masculine Words (+ Genders) Tips from Native Speakers Vocabulary 100 Subjects 41 Subjects 1000 Most Common French Words 170+ Subjects Space Vocabulary (Tumblr Masterpost) Extra Type French + its Accents Studyblrs who are Learning or Already Speak French (click French) French Words Daily (a Tumblr Account) French Words Daily (another Tumblr Account) Tips Definitely keep a notebook Take a class if possible If you’re taking a class, write down any extra French vocabulary you may get; my teacher likes to call it “bonus free knowledge” when she gives us extra vocabulary Practice pronouncing. All. The. Time. Take notes Have readable notes Practice writing grammar Once you start learning, do not stop or else you’re going to forget things!! Take quizzes tests online for practice Make some online French friends :)) Thank you for reading my masterpost! MY MASTERPOSTS: How to Color Code Highlight Efficiently How to Make Flashcards How to Get Be Motivated How to Get Enough Sleep The Mega Stationery Masterpost What are in my Pencil Cases? All
Anaconda, Click, and Definitely: FRENCHH
 RESOURCES
 MASTERPOST
 by studyvet
scholarc:

As a student learning French, I thought it would be neat to offer French resources not only for myself, but for other French learners!
Learning Websites

Duolingo 


Bonjour


Babbel


ieLanguages

TalkInFrench

TheFrenchTutorial

FrenchCrazy

TheFrenchExperiement

FrenchByFrench

Memrise

Busuu

LanguagesOnline
Lingvist
Dictionaries  Checkers

Bonpatron (Checker)

Languagetool (Checker)

Reverso (Checker)

Linguee (Dictionary)

Reverso Dictionary (Dictionary/Checker)

Collins Dictionary (Dictionary)

Wordreference (Dictionary)

Linternaute (Dictionary)

Larousse (Dictionary)
Pronunciation

Frenchcrazy English vs. French

Letter Pronounciation
FSI Language
TalkInFrench
Pronunciation PDF
Phonetique
PronunciationGuide
Fluentu
Grammar Basics
Contractions
Possessive Determiners
Indefinite Articles
Definite Articles
Demonstrative Determiners
Interrogatives
Partitive Articles
Prepositions
Conjunctions

Conjugating Words (-ER, -IR, -RE; regular  irregular) + examples
Accent Marks

Imparfait vs Passe Compose 
Imparfait vs Passe Compose 2

Passé Composé (past tense)

Futur Proche (near future, using aller)
Future Tense

Feminine  Masculine Words (+ Genders)
Tips from Native Speakers
Vocabulary

100 Subjects
41 Subjects
1000 Most Common French Words
170+ Subjects

Space Vocabulary (Tumblr Masterpost)

Extra

Type French + its Accents

Studyblrs who are Learning or Already Speak French (click French)


French Words Daily (a Tumblr Account)


French Words Daily (another Tumblr Account)


Tips
Definitely keep a notebook
Take a class if possible
If you’re taking a class, write down any extra French vocabulary you may get; my teacher likes to call it “bonus free knowledge” when she gives us extra vocabulary
Practice pronouncing. All. The. Time.
Take notes
Have readable notes
Practice writing  grammar
Once you start learning, do not stop or else you’re going to forget things!!
Take quizzes  tests online for practice
Make some online French friends :))

Thank you for reading my masterpost!
MY MASTERPOSTS:
How to Color Code  Highlight Efficiently
How to Make Flashcards
How to Get  Be Motivated
How to Get Enough Sleep

The Mega Stationery Masterpost
What are in my Pencil Cases?

 All

scholarc: As a student learning French, I thought it would be neat to offer French resources not only for myself, but for other French lear...

Baby Got Back, Bad, and Bad Day: dirdbub diedbub Songs that never fail to make white people beyond turnt Dont Sop Believing Bohemian Rhapsody Lving On A Prayer Come On Eieen Sweet Carolne Shot Through te Pour Some Sugar on Me Sweet Home Alabama · Shook Me All Night Long loe lce Baby Cotlon Eyed Joe Buddy Hol A Thousand Mles Teenage Dirtba Red Solo Cup Gornส Give You Up Eye of the Tiger Chicken Fried ILove Rock and Dancing Queen Dont You Want Me Wll Rock You The Time Warp Hey Jue Piano Man Is How We Drops of Jupher · Hey Sou·Sister n The Enc .All The Smail Things -Stacy's Mom Bad Day Bring Me To Life Dance, Dance Sugar we're Goingown I Wite Sins Not Tragedies -All The Small Things Ocean Avenue Dirty Lime Secret Brown Eyed Gi Life is A Higay Some Nights Litie Lion Man Hey There Delilah Viva La Vida · .Use Somebody Cary On My wayward Son Seven Nation ArT - Sinoe U Been Gone Everybody (Backstreet's Back Bye Bye Bye Say It Aint So Only We Knaw I'm Yours Last Resort Tiny Dancer Soul Man Feel Good Inc Check Yes Julet Walking On Sunshine MMM Bop Pumped up kicks - On A Feeing It's A Beautitul Day Summer Girns Before He Cheats Happy Together .You Make My Creams Come True Build Me Up Buttercup Escape (The Pina Colada Song) Shake it Metro Station) Juke Box Hero Girls Just WantT To Have Furn hurleyquinn rve gonen Ike a mason comments like ㄱ can" beteve you forgot here's an updated Ilst Take On Me Every Time We Touch - Hips Don't Lie Barbie Gir Year 3000 Tik Tok -She will be loved Jurp Around la Vida Loca .We Are The Champions -The Final Countdown Hotel Califomia Btzkneg Bop Baby Got Back The Lion Sleeps Tonight (Mimoweh) Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go Lady Marmalade (You Gotta) Fight For Your Right (To Party Who Let The Dogs Out e Not Gonna Take It - Lose Yoursert It Wasn't Me No Scrubs .Soak Up The Sun . We Got The Beat IWant R That Way .Baby One More Time -Free Faling Big Yelow Tax Stairway To Heaven Highway To Hell .Get LoW Igntion Rem Single Ladies Burnin' Up . U Cant Touch This Total Ecipse of the Heart You Spin Me Round (Like A Record) It's Not Unusul Smells Like Teen Spint Dragostea Din Tei (Numa Numa) Any Ine dancing songisong wth a specific dance instructions (The Cha cna saide, the Electric $ide, me Cupid Stume. YMCA, woecke the Macarena. Jump Ot) .And hilariously Nias In Panis All of which have been added to the playlst oura hurleu 41,795 notes Post Songs that never fail to make white people beyond turnt (playlist in the comments)
Baby Got Back, Bad, and Bad Day: dirdbub diedbub
 Songs that never fail to make
 white people beyond turnt
 Dont Sop Believing
 Bohemian Rhapsody
 Lving On A Prayer
 Come On Eieen
 Sweet Carolne
 Shot Through te
 Pour Some Sugar on Me
 Sweet Home Alabama
 ·
 Shook Me All Night Long
 loe lce Baby
 Cotlon Eyed Joe
 Buddy Hol
 A Thousand Mles
 Teenage Dirtba
 Red Solo Cup
 Gornส Give You Up
 Eye of the Tiger
 Chicken Fried
 ILove Rock and
 Dancing Queen
 Dont You Want Me
 Wll Rock You
 The Time Warp
 Hey Jue
 Piano Man
 Is How We
 Drops of Jupher
 · Hey Sou·Sister
 n The Enc
 .All The Smail Things
 -Stacy's Mom
 Bad Day
 Bring Me To Life
 Dance, Dance
 Sugar we're Goingown
 I Wite Sins Not Tragedies
 -All The Small Things
 Ocean Avenue
 Dirty Lime Secret
 Brown Eyed Gi
 Life is A Higay
 Some Nights
 Litie Lion Man
 Hey There Delilah
 Viva La Vida
 ·
 .Use Somebody
 Cary On My wayward Son
 Seven Nation ArT
 - Sinoe U Been Gone
 Everybody (Backstreet's Back
 Bye Bye Bye
 Say It Aint So
 Only We Knaw
 I'm Yours
 Last Resort
 Tiny Dancer
 Soul Man
 Feel Good Inc
 Check Yes Julet
 Walking On Sunshine
 MMM Bop
 Pumped up kicks
 -
 On A Feeing
 It's A Beautitul Day
 Summer Girns
 Before He Cheats
 Happy Together
 .You Make My Creams Come True
 Build Me Up Buttercup
 Escape (The Pina Colada Song)
 Shake it Metro Station)
 Juke Box Hero
 Girls Just WantT
 To Have Furn
 hurleyquinn
 rve gonen Ike a mason comments like ㄱ can" beteve you forgot
 here's an updated Ilst
 Take On Me
 Every Time We Touch
 -
 Hips Don't Lie
 Barbie Gir
 Year 3000
 Tik Tok
 -She will be loved
 Jurp Around
 la Vida Loca
 .We Are The Champions
 -The Final Countdown
 Hotel Califomia
 Btzkneg Bop
 Baby Got Back
 The Lion Sleeps Tonight (Mimoweh)
 Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go
 Lady Marmalade
 (You Gotta) Fight For Your Right (To Party
 Who Let The Dogs Out
 e Not Gonna Take It
 - Lose Yoursert
 It Wasn't Me
 No Scrubs
 .Soak Up The Sun
 . We Got The Beat
 IWant R That Way
 .Baby One More Time
 -Free Faling
 Big Yelow Tax
 Stairway To Heaven
 Highway To Hell
 .Get LoW
 Igntion Rem
 Single Ladies
 Burnin' Up
 . U Cant Touch This
 Total Ecipse of the Heart
 You Spin Me Round (Like A Record)
 It's Not Unusul
 Smells Like Teen Spint
 Dragostea Din Tei (Numa Numa)
 Any Ine dancing songisong wth a specific dance instructions (The Cha
 cna saide, the Electric $ide, me Cupid Stume. YMCA, woecke the
 Macarena. Jump Ot)
 .And hilariously
 Nias In Panis
 All of which have been added to the playlst
 oura hurleu
 41,795 notes
 Post
Songs that never fail to make white people beyond turnt (playlist in the comments)

Songs that never fail to make white people beyond turnt (playlist in the comments)

Advice, Being Alone, and Anaconda: THE MISLEADING NARRATIVE The Reality ALL "sacred" sites were identified and the pipeline was rerouted to avoid them. US Uncut shared Al Jazeera English's video. Yesterday at 10:36 AM A U.S. District Court confirmed Al Jazeera English uday at 11:30 AM. the tribe had failed to prove any of its claims. A battle is underway between native Americans and oil companies. Here's what you need to know. The tribe was offered ample time to consult with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, but refused, instead opting "to boycott the entire process." There's ALREADY an existing pipeline on the same land, parallel to the new one. The DAPL's path is on privately owned land, NOT THE SIOUX RESERVATION, and 100% of the ND land owners signed contracts allowing the pipe-line to be built. THE LEFT WANTS YOU TO BUY INTO THEIRVICTIMHOOD NARRATIVE andiPipeline Maps (ConfirmTheSiouxiribe Is NOT Being Harmed By The DAPL! -- WAC <p><a href="http://flyingattreelevel.tumblr.com/post/153966415254/gop-tea-pub-the-misleading-claim-native" class="tumblr_blog">flyingattreelevel</a>:</p><blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://gop-tea-pub.tumblr.com/post/152604025097">gop-tea-pub</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p> THE MISLEADING CLAIM: “Native Americans are again being screwed over by the U.S., as the Dakota Access Pipeline encroaches on ‘sacred land’ belonging to the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, absent consent.”<br/><br/> THE REALITY: “Court documents, official land surveys, and pipeline maps, confirm this is almost entirely false.”<br/><br/> Let’s begin with the notion of “sacred land”. Extensive cultural &amp; land surveys were conducted in North Dakota before the pipeline received approval. It marked some land as “sacred.” The pipeline plans were then redrafted as to avoid ALL “sacred” pieces of land. [a] This isn’t just conservative-media opinion, either, it’s confirmed in the U.S. District Court memorandum, stating:<br/><br/> “Where this surveying revealed …historic or cultural resources that might be affected, the company mostly chose to reroute. In North Dakota, for example, the cultural surveys found 149 potentially eligible sites, 91 of which had stone features (considered sacred). The pipeline workspace and route was modified to avoid ALL 91 of these stone features and all but 9 of the other potentially eligible sites. By the time the company finally settled on a construction path, …the pipeline route had been modified 140 times in North Dakota alone to avoid potential cultural resources. Plans had also been put in place to mitigate any effects on the other 9 sites through coordination with the North Dakota SHPO.” [b]<br/>  <br/> Those modifications convinced the U.S. District Court to rule against the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, citing the tribe’s inability to show how the pipeline would damage the group’s sacred ground. From the court document itself, it states,  “if a party makes no showing of irreparable injury, the court may deny the motion… It follows, then, that the Court may deny a motion for preliminary injunction, without further inquiry, upon finding that a plaintiff is unable to show either irreparable injury&quot; [b] “The Tribe has not met its burden to show that DAPL-related work is likely to cause damage.” [b]<br/><br/> In addition to providing no substantive evidence to support their case, the Standing Rock Sioux tribe was offered ample time to consult with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, but refused, instead opting “to boycott the entire consulting process.” [a] This petulance was again confirmed by the court’s review, which showed that, as the Army Corps of Engineers attempted more than a dozen times between 2014 and 2016 to discuss the DAPL route with the Standing Rock, “the tribe either failed to respond to requests for consultation or dragged its feet during the process.” [c] It’s also noteworthy that the company building the pipeline - Energy Transfer Partners - had only originally moved the project near the Standing Rock reservation in the first place because doing so was considered “less impactful on the environment, according to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.” [d] So any assumption that the company hadn’t gone out of its way to seek consultation and alter its plans in consideration of the environment is absolutely false. <br/><br/> Now that we’ve established that the tribe failed to substantiate its complaints, let’s add this somewhat surprising revelation; THERE’S ALREADY AN EXISTING FUEL PIPELINE IN PLACE, UNDER THE SAME GROUND, WITH NO COMPLAINTS. This - again - was exposed in the court’s review and can be confirmed for yourself via utility pipeline maps. “The area around the permitted activity has been subject to previous surveying for other utility projects. DAPL likewise will run parallel, at a distance of 22 to 300 feet, to an ALREADY-EXISTING natural-gas pipeline under the lake. Dakota Access will also use the less-invasive HDD method to run the pipeline, which will require less disturbance to the land around the drilling and bury the pipeline at a depth that is unlikely to damage cultural resources. [b] One can see this for themselves by viewing side by side maps, one showing the existing pipelines, and the other showing the planned route for the new pipeline. They mirror each other. [f]<br/><br/> Lastly is the issue of land ownership and the presumption that the pipeline encroaches on North Dakotan land owned by indigenous tribes. Wrong again. The truth is, the Dakota Access Pipeline traverses a path on PRIVATE PROPERTY and does not cross into the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s reservation. Literally 100% of affected landowners in North Dakota VOLUNTARILY signed contracts allowing for construction of the pipeline on their property. [g] They were offered a good deal and they took it. The Native American reservation is merely adjacent to affected property, it is not the ACTUAL affected property. <br/><br/> One might ask, “but what if neighboring the reservation still puts it in danger?” Here, too, research suggests otherwise. Per a 2015 Fraser Institute Research Report entitled “Safety in the Transportation of Oil and Gas,” transporting oil and gas by pipeline is actually the safest method. Matter of fact, fuel transported via rail is found to be “over 4.5 times more likely to experience an occurrence” than via pipeline. [e] Additionally, “over 70 percent of pipeline occurrences result in spills of ONLY 1 cubic meter, and only 17 percent of pipeline occurrences take place in the actual pipeline.” [e] The vast majority of spills actually occur inside facilities [e], meaning it’s VERY unlikely that anything substantial will leak from the new pipeline.  <br/><br/> CONCLUSION:<br/> Essentially, the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is complaining that private owners sold the rights to place a fuel pipeline on land that the Tribe does not own, in a way that mirrors existing pipelines, as to transport fuel in the safest and cheapest manner, with designs evolving from countless consultation efforts and professional advice on how to be as environmentally friendly as possible, while specifically redesigning the route an additional 140 times as to avoid offending the tribe, all while the tribe was largely boycotting the consultation efforts and failing to substantiate its complaints in court. What’s happening now, therefore, is nothing more than the political left latching onto the latest controversy as to perpetuate their endless narrative of victimhood.<br/> —————<br/> Sources:<br/> [a]<br/><a href="http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/30/anti-frackers-keep-falsely-suggesting-dapl-desecrated-tribal-lands/">http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/30/anti-frackers-keep-falsely-suggesting-dapl-desecrated-tribal-lands/</a><br/><br/> [b]<br/><a href="http://mwalliancenow.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Document-39.pdf">http://mwalliancenow.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Document-39.pdf</a><br/><br/> [c]<br/><a href="http://dailycaller.com/2016/09/17/the-govt-actually-tried-several-times-to-consult-north-dakota-tribe-about-pipeline/">http://dailycaller.com/2016/09/17/the-govt-actually-tried-several-times-to-consult-north-dakota-tribe-about-pipeline/</a><br/><br/> [d]<br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.reuters.com%2Farticle%2Fus-usa-pipeline-nativeamericans-reroute-idUSKCN11P09K&amp;h=xAQFlYMCu&amp;enc=AZOESF3Bg81XcyZz2Sphg3DZszf_METV6wUxd4-d7xsv-Fmoroch6-xBn30qnuShFF8ou7-jTjj9O1lnTV9nQMr9CIKUKPlRMcSf6fLPh5ysvblDR1SsqIBemgX8VEBCrDkjGOJBxMU_KG6m3utrXn7h3cZR3PwfgLKGqXy12vdJ3CzrZPZL2TXbaLQUZC1PEQE&amp;s=1">http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-pipeline-nativeamericans-reroute-idUSKCN11P09K</a><br/><br/> [e]<br/><a href="https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/safety-in-the-transportation-of-oil-and-gas-pipelines-or-rail-rev2.pdf">https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/safety-in-the-transportation-of-oil-and-gas-pipelines-or-rail-rev2.pdf</a><br/><br/> [f]<br/><a href="https://www.sayanythingblog.com/entry/dakota-access-pipeline-follows-existing-gas-line-protest-area/">https://www.sayanythingblog.com/entry/dakota-access-pipeline-follows-existing-gas-line-protest-area/</a><br/>  <br/> [g]<br/><a href="https://mwalliancenow.org/blog/dakota-access-easements-95-percent/">https://mwalliancenow.org/blog/dakota-access-easements-95-percent/</a> <br/></p> </blockquote> <p>I enjoy factual information, thank you.</p> </blockquote>
Advice, Being Alone, and Anaconda: THE MISLEADING NARRATIVE
 The Reality
 ALL "sacred" sites were
 identified and the pipeline
 was rerouted to avoid them.
 US Uncut shared Al Jazeera English's video.
 Yesterday at 10:36 AM
 A U.S. District Court confirmed
 Al Jazeera English
 uday at 11:30 AM.
 the tribe had failed to prove any
 of its claims.
 A battle is underway between native Americans and oil
 companies. Here's what you need to know.
 The tribe was offered ample time
 to consult with the U.S. Army
 Corps of Engineers, but refused,
 instead opting "to boycott
 the entire process."
 There's ALREADY an existing
 pipeline on the same land,
 parallel to the new one.
 The DAPL's path is on privately
 owned land, NOT THE SIOUX
 RESERVATION, and 100% of the
 ND land owners signed contracts
 allowing the pipe-line to be built.
 THE LEFT WANTS YOU TO BUY INTO
 THEIRVICTIMHOOD NARRATIVE
 andiPipeline Maps (ConfirmTheSiouxiribe
 Is NOT Being Harmed By The DAPL!
 -- WAC
<p><a href="http://flyingattreelevel.tumblr.com/post/153966415254/gop-tea-pub-the-misleading-claim-native" class="tumblr_blog">flyingattreelevel</a>:</p><blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://gop-tea-pub.tumblr.com/post/152604025097">gop-tea-pub</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>
THE
 MISLEADING CLAIM: “Native Americans are again being screwed over by the
 U.S., as the Dakota Access Pipeline encroaches on ‘sacred land’ 
belonging to the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, absent consent.”<br/><br/> THE REALITY: “Court documents, official land surveys, and pipeline maps, confirm this is almost entirely false.”<br/><br/> Let’s begin with the notion of “sacred land”. Extensive cultural &amp; land surveys were
 conducted in North Dakota before the pipeline received approval. It 
marked some land as “sacred.” The pipeline plans were then redrafted as 
to avoid ALL “sacred” pieces of land. [a] This isn’t just 
conservative-media opinion, either, it’s confirmed in the U.S. District 
Court memorandum, stating:<br/><br/> “Where this surveying revealed 
…historic or cultural resources that might be affected, the company 
mostly chose to reroute. In North Dakota, for example, the cultural 
surveys found 149 potentially eligible sites, 91 of which had stone 
features (considered sacred). The pipeline workspace and route was 
modified to avoid ALL 91 of these stone features and all but 9 of the 
other potentially eligible sites. By the time the company finally 
settled on a construction path, …the pipeline route had been modified 
140 times in North Dakota alone to avoid potential cultural resources. 
Plans had also been put in place to mitigate any effects on the other 9 
sites through coordination with the North Dakota SHPO.” [b]<br/>  <br/> 
Those modifications convinced the U.S. District Court to rule against 
the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, citing the tribe’s inability to show how 
the pipeline would damage the group’s sacred ground. From the court 
document itself, it states,  “if a party makes no showing of irreparable
 injury, the court may deny the motion… It follows, then, that the 
Court may deny a motion for preliminary injunction, without further 
inquiry, upon finding that a plaintiff is unable to show either 
irreparable injury&quot; [b] “The Tribe has not met its burden to show that 
DAPL-related work is likely to cause damage.” [b]<br/><br/> In addition 
to providing no substantive evidence to support their case, the Standing
 Rock Sioux tribe was offered ample time to consult with the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers, but refused, instead opting “to boycott the entire 
consulting process.” [a] This petulance was again confirmed by the 
court’s review, which showed that, as the Army Corps of Engineers 
attempted more than a dozen times between 2014 and 2016 to discuss the 
DAPL route with the Standing Rock, “the tribe either failed to respond 
to requests for consultation or dragged its feet during the process.” 
[c] It’s also noteworthy that the company building the pipeline - Energy
 Transfer Partners - had only originally moved the project near the 
Standing Rock reservation in the first place because doing so was 
considered “less impactful on the environment, according to the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers.” [d] So any assumption that the company hadn’t 
gone out of its way to seek consultation and alter its plans in 
consideration of the environment is absolutely false. <br/><br/> Now that
 we’ve established that the tribe failed to substantiate its complaints,
 let’s add this somewhat surprising revelation; THERE’S ALREADY AN 
EXISTING FUEL PIPELINE IN PLACE, UNDER THE SAME GROUND, WITH NO 
COMPLAINTS. This - again - was exposed in the court’s review and can be 
confirmed for yourself via utility pipeline maps. “The area around the 
permitted activity has been subject to previous surveying for other 
utility projects. DAPL likewise will run parallel, at a distance of 22 
to 300 feet, to an ALREADY-EXISTING natural-gas pipeline under the lake.
 Dakota Access will also use the less-invasive HDD method to run the 
pipeline, which will require less disturbance to the land around the 
drilling and bury the pipeline at a depth that is unlikely to damage 
cultural resources. [b] One can see this for themselves by viewing side 
by side maps, one showing the existing pipelines, and the other showing 
the planned route for the new pipeline. They mirror each other. [f]<br/><br/>
 Lastly is the issue of land ownership and the presumption that the 
pipeline encroaches on North Dakotan land owned by indigenous tribes. 
Wrong again. The truth is, the Dakota Access Pipeline traverses a path 
on PRIVATE PROPERTY and does not cross into the Standing Rock Sioux 
Tribe’s reservation. Literally 100% of affected landowners in North 
Dakota VOLUNTARILY signed contracts allowing for construction of the 
pipeline on their property. [g] They were offered a good deal and they 
took it. The Native American reservation is merely adjacent to affected 
property, it is not the ACTUAL affected property. <br/><br/> One might 
ask, “but what if neighboring the reservation still puts it in danger?” 
Here, too, research suggests otherwise. Per a 2015 Fraser Institute 
Research Report entitled “Safety in the Transportation of Oil and Gas,” 
transporting oil and gas by pipeline is actually the safest method. 
Matter of fact, fuel transported via rail is found to be “over 4.5 times
 more likely to experience an occurrence” than via pipeline. [e] 
Additionally, “over 70 percent of pipeline occurrences result in spills 
of ONLY 1 cubic meter, and only 17 percent of pipeline occurrences take 
place in the actual pipeline.” [e] The vast majority of spills actually 
occur inside facilities [e], meaning it’s VERY unlikely that anything 
substantial will leak from the new pipeline.  <br/><br/> CONCLUSION:<br/> 
Essentially, the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is complaining that private 
owners sold the rights to place a fuel pipeline on land that the Tribe 
does not own, in a way that mirrors existing pipelines, as to transport 
fuel in the safest and cheapest manner, with designs evolving from 
countless consultation efforts and professional advice on how to be as 
environmentally friendly as possible, while specifically redesigning the
 route an additional 140 times as to avoid offending the tribe, all 
while the tribe was largely boycotting the consultation efforts and 
failing to substantiate its complaints in court. What’s happening now, 
therefore, is nothing more than the political left latching onto the 
latest controversy as to perpetuate their endless narrative of 
victimhood.<br/> —————<br/> Sources:<br/> [a]<br/><a href="http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/30/anti-frackers-keep-falsely-suggesting-dapl-desecrated-tribal-lands/">http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/30/anti-frackers-keep-falsely-suggesting-dapl-desecrated-tribal-lands/</a><br/><br/> [b]<br/><a href="http://mwalliancenow.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Document-39.pdf">http://mwalliancenow.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Document-39.pdf</a><br/><br/> [c]<br/><a href="http://dailycaller.com/2016/09/17/the-govt-actually-tried-several-times-to-consult-north-dakota-tribe-about-pipeline/">http://dailycaller.com/2016/09/17/the-govt-actually-tried-several-times-to-consult-north-dakota-tribe-about-pipeline/</a><br/><br/> [d]<br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.reuters.com%2Farticle%2Fus-usa-pipeline-nativeamericans-reroute-idUSKCN11P09K&amp;h=xAQFlYMCu&amp;enc=AZOESF3Bg81XcyZz2Sphg3DZszf_METV6wUxd4-d7xsv-Fmoroch6-xBn30qnuShFF8ou7-jTjj9O1lnTV9nQMr9CIKUKPlRMcSf6fLPh5ysvblDR1SsqIBemgX8VEBCrDkjGOJBxMU_KG6m3utrXn7h3cZR3PwfgLKGqXy12vdJ3CzrZPZL2TXbaLQUZC1PEQE&amp;s=1">http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-pipeline-nativeamericans-reroute-idUSKCN11P09K</a><br/><br/> [e]<br/><a href="https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/safety-in-the-transportation-of-oil-and-gas-pipelines-or-rail-rev2.pdf">https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/safety-in-the-transportation-of-oil-and-gas-pipelines-or-rail-rev2.pdf</a><br/><br/> [f]<br/><a href="https://www.sayanythingblog.com/entry/dakota-access-pipeline-follows-existing-gas-line-protest-area/">https://www.sayanythingblog.com/entry/dakota-access-pipeline-follows-existing-gas-line-protest-area/</a><br/>  <br/> [g]<br/><a href="https://mwalliancenow.org/blog/dakota-access-easements-95-percent/">https://mwalliancenow.org/blog/dakota-access-easements-95-percent/</a>

<br/></p>
</blockquote>

<p>I enjoy factual information, thank you.</p>
</blockquote>

flyingattreelevel: gop-tea-pub: THE MISLEADING CLAIM: “Native Americans are again being screwed over by the U.S., as the Dakota Access P...

America, Drugs, and Facebook: THE AVERAGE HIP REPLACEMENT USA SPAIN $40,364 $7,371 THAT MEANS I CAN LITERALLY FLY TO SPAIN, LIVE IN MADRID FOR2 YEARS, LEARN SPANISH, RUN WITH THE BULLS, GET TRAMPLED, GET MY HIP REPLACED AGAIN, AND FLY HOME FOR LESS THAN THE COST OF A HIP REPLACEMENT IN THE US. JOSH SUNDQUIST SHARE IF YOU WANT UNIVERSAL HEALTHCARE IN THE U.S. <p><a href="http://libertybill.tumblr.com/post/149098105202/cuzyouwanttotakemypicture-yep-from-wacthe" class="tumblr_blog">libertybill</a>:</p> <blockquote><p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://cuzyouwanttotakemypicture.tumblr.com/post/149049455211">cuzyouwanttotakemypicture</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p>Yep</p> </blockquote> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/WeAreCapitalists/photos/a.195735437264673.1073741832.157541337750750/361763283995220/">From WAC</a></p><h2>THE MISLEADING CLAIM: </h2><p> “The average hip replacement in the USA costs $40,364. In Spain, it costs $7,371.“</p><h2> The Reality:</h2><p> First, note that Spain has a single-payer health care system run by the government. Their system requires, by law, that the state provide healthcare at “no out-of-pocket” cost to the individual. (except for prescription drugs.) Thus, costs are incurred by taxpayers. </p><p> One reason the cost of surgery is different between the two countries? Incomes are lower in Spain than they are in the U.S. This means the labor component that factors into your hip replacement is severely reduced.</p><p> The Median salary of an Orthopedic surgeon in Spain, for instance, is only $64,152 a year. The same position pays about $432,552 a year in the U.S.</p><p> The labor component for surgery in America is therefore roughly 6.75 times greater than it is in Spain. If one were to adjust the cost of a hip replacement surgery in Spain by accounting for what the surgeon SHOULD be getting paid, we’d see a final price much closer to what’s charged in America. </p><p> WHAT’S THE COST RELATIVE TO MEDIAN INCOME?</p><p> Spain’s Median Household Annual Income, adjusted for purchasing parity, was $17,191 in 2011.<br/> The United States’ Median Household Annual Income, on the other hand, was $50,054 in 2011.</p><p> If the average cost of a hip replacement in Spain is $7,371, that’s roughly 43% of that country’s median household income. Note, that price is billed to the taxpayer. As we’ll demonstrate however, in America, the cost is less burdensome. </p><p> Now, there is no such thing as an “un-insured” price for medical care in Spain, since everyone is insured via the government. Therefore, Spain’s cost must be compared to what INSURED individuals are charged in America. The Average Cost of the same hip replacement surgery in the U.S. is $39,299 (per our sources). This would represent a whopping 78% of median household income IF - and only if - people actually paid it, but they don’t. Most of the cost is billed to private insurance companies, which sustain themselves via profitable investments mitigating the need to profit directly off of consumers. Only about $3,000 is ever billed to an insured individual. That’s around 6% of median household income. </p><p> One might point out that while the costs are mostly incurred by private insurers in America, those insurers merely disperse such costs amongst their customers not unlike the Spanish government passing costs onto taxpayers. This is a fair critique, and for the sake of argument, we can attempt to adjust for that. </p><p> For 2011, premiums for employer-sponsored family-health coverage were roughly $15,500. (Paid largely by the employer) On average, workers, however, only paid about $4300 of that. For single (non-family) coverage, workers paid even less, with an average contribution of only about $950. [x] If we were to include one year’s worth of insurance premium contributions with the cost of this surgery, the cost in America would still only range from $3950 - $7300. That only represents 7.9% - 14.5% of our 2011 median household income, which is significantly less than Spain’s 43%. In fact, for the burden of a U.S. family to match that of Spain, we’d have to include, not only the out-of-pocket expense from the surgery, but also over 4 years of health insurance contributions. For individual coverage, we’d have to include 19.5 years of health insurance contributions! Luckily, our burden isn’t 43% of our median household income. </p><h2> WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?</h2><p> Yes, the absolute cost is lower in Spain than it is in America, but that cost represents a burden far greater than what we experience in the U.S. Meanwhile, in the United States, depending on how you count it, people only pay an amount equivalent to about 6%, 7.9%, or 14.5% what they earn annually. When Spain’s burden is 43%, which system sounds less burdensome to YOU?<br/> —————————-<br/> Sources: <br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.salaryexplorer.com%2Fsalary-survey.php%3Fjob%3D994%26jobtype%3D3%26gender%3Dm%26loctype%3D1%26loc%3D203&amp;h=JAQFvcvTOAQH7ZRfnwmS7NNEEu5HJUfydJQymIdu_t68lMg&amp;enc=AZPZyj0NReNb807keEKuTPW5Zc8ONlHriOBnqNjp_4pYOHA-Z4LNhac6xVepItYw1t2KPkJ9IHt6FFhn452_o29emowg4G2sX8LziIZCnJxlYMvjljOqi2xAcBvO2n67lrcMNaBS3BhRT4-S9adhoftpSDiUNCV5QAYq42UoiGwYp9-16owUA9UF6eEjZYunhPs&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.salaryexplorer.com/salary-survey.php…</a></p><p> <a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.npr.org%2Ftemplates%2Fstory%2Fstory.php%3FstoryId%3D112014770&amp;h=LAQEsg9VXAQFwotpcEQoZZK3NRwUun6wL2bDTRa5aBqd6vg&amp;enc=AZPCCdAPstZvalT4mAtoA46dEyUog5lwvXO4M0L4Oer3XGb6nPoovWD6IcujzshuZcmY-oJtDZg9x26JYmJHE7KnYwhqDefoFzLL2bFDHW1P91r2_fBqyuDAvKSQtYyK6VYcWd-o-Sc2nB0o5ZzyUekjnyPJEVtXZm2tntpyVjNccK8hDzKMtdR-dsWAVYbXB3Y&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php…</a></p><p> <a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ine.es%2Fen%2Fdaco%2Fdaco42%2Fetcl%2Fetcl0412_en.pdf&amp;h=OAQFGXKQPAQFwLOZpsxTntZ4lwKiqfQkh_uc5yobV6le0iA&amp;enc=AZMTgp-PsHVSHlhvH3WIDCJkEoutGi3xv4F-sz_s1S1C2PG9vVYS9Ck3iT-Rj2LBWv-q2aJlYNY4wW7aiWIHqD5OJ0eq3erC6i1er92ZGLYgbmqzOjBhU2SUP1opihR4zhqlKzRo3DCI5ce32QRfH6OIvUa8zr8IdTr1wmdzDs9YjyQtTD0JfRf45s3k1Y7XYy4&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/etcl/etcl0412_en.pdf</a></p><p> <a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fstats.oecd.org%2FIndex.aspx%3FDataSetCode%3DIDD&amp;h=cAQGSs6HyAQGkxsdSUp97tqc-deK1iQtU-A6Wqng-u8U0Rg&amp;enc=AZPGImFXgUez1viYoTMZGnhZvfozAfQUDpXN6aaMKD1tKwZ72SjKwc8hzQegbD76-J8ra8NOTQYunqDa98BxhRfPR8CFgYvWj4TrTvqA4Lf_xk-t9hUV3AMiZONtiV2mzOurb3w9f0Gp1VRiVa9SHRuO39JAzDANVYD0d_UsdZ5Fmhi0Tn4jIuTK--l5HnlJDYU&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=IDD</a></p><p> <a href="http://health.costhelper.com/hip-replacement.htmlanted=all&amp;_r=0" rel="nofollow">http://health.costhelper.com/hip-replacement.htmlanted=all&amp;…</a></p><p> <a href="http://www.justlanded.com/english/Spain/Articles/Jobs/Doctors" rel="nofollow">http://www.justlanded.com/engli…/Spain/Articles/Jobs/Doctors</a></p><p> [x] (*2011 figures were approximated. Source actually only provided 2010 and 2012 figures, but indicated what the growth rate was in that time, allowing for a 2011 approximation.) <br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncsl.org%2Fresearch%2Fhealth%2Fhealth-insurance-premiums.aspx&amp;h=FAQHapbpsAQFykomHtGgO8DrldpKuIic20h5uHCEPZgnHWQ&amp;enc=AZNqcOcGPkBVqFWVSz3hAFnSKvBO03iHt45d338nwQUDWxnIBzFFM4xZ3WIzIEB7h6sOurfyeTWesd7NaKP7X7_a83CMCo_ihSN0P8hvQiidD6P082gpBNinoDVXv9sBkmvWdhYpBjHp3N8KtSLWL_TXU7I37nwFwNxU1qmKV-17rhCKAKohXfgNTXgTD6zlJvw&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.ncsl.org/resear…/…/health-insurance-premiums.aspx</a></p></blockquote>
America, Drugs, and Facebook: THE AVERAGE HIP REPLACEMENT
 USA
 SPAIN
 $40,364
 $7,371
 THAT MEANS I CAN LITERALLY FLY
 TO SPAIN, LIVE IN MADRID FOR2
 YEARS, LEARN SPANISH, RUN WITH
 THE BULLS, GET TRAMPLED, GET
 MY HIP REPLACED AGAIN, AND FLY
 HOME FOR LESS THAN THE COST OF
 A HIP REPLACEMENT IN THE US.
 JOSH SUNDQUIST
 SHARE IF YOU WANT UNIVERSAL HEALTHCARE IN THE U.S.
<p><a href="http://libertybill.tumblr.com/post/149098105202/cuzyouwanttotakemypicture-yep-from-wacthe" class="tumblr_blog">libertybill</a>:</p>

<blockquote><p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://cuzyouwanttotakemypicture.tumblr.com/post/149049455211">cuzyouwanttotakemypicture</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>Yep</p>
</blockquote>

<p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/WeAreCapitalists/photos/a.195735437264673.1073741832.157541337750750/361763283995220/">From WAC</a></p><h2>THE MISLEADING CLAIM: </h2><p> “The average hip replacement in the USA costs $40,364. In Spain, it costs $7,371.“</p><h2> The Reality:</h2><p>
 First, note that Spain has a single-payer health care system run by the
 government. Their system requires, by law, that the state provide 
healthcare at “no out-of-pocket” cost to the individual. (except for 
prescription drugs.) Thus, costs are incurred by taxpayers.  </p><p> One
 reason the cost of surgery is different between the two countries?  
Incomes are lower in Spain than they are in the U.S. This means the 
labor component that factors into your hip replacement is severely 
reduced.</p><p> The Median salary of an Orthopedic surgeon in Spain, for
 instance, is only $64,152 a year. The same position pays about $432,552
 a year in the U.S.</p><p> The labor component for surgery in America is
 therefore roughly 6.75 times greater than it is in Spain. If one were 
to adjust the cost of a hip replacement surgery in Spain by accounting 
for what the surgeon SHOULD be getting paid, we’d see a final price much
 closer to what’s charged in America.  </p><p> WHAT’S THE COST RELATIVE TO MEDIAN INCOME?</p><p> Spain’s Median Household Annual Income, adjusted for purchasing parity, was $17,191 in 2011.<br/> The United States’ Median Household Annual Income, on the other hand, was $50,054 in 2011.</p><p>
 If the average cost of a hip replacement in Spain is $7,371, that’s 
roughly 43% of that country’s median household income. Note, that price 
is billed to the taxpayer. As we’ll demonstrate however, in America, the
 cost is less burdensome. </p><p> Now, there is no such thing as an 
“un-insured” price for medical care in Spain, since everyone is insured 
via the government. Therefore, Spain’s cost must be compared to what 
INSURED individuals are charged in America. The Average Cost of the same
 hip replacement surgery in the U.S. is $39,299 (per our sources).  This
 would represent a whopping 78% of median household income IF - and only
 if - people actually paid it, but they don’t. Most of the cost is 
billed to private insurance companies, which sustain themselves via 
profitable investments mitigating the need to profit directly off of 
consumers. Only about $3,000 is ever billed to an insured individual. 
That’s around 6% of median household income. </p><p> One might point out
 that while the costs are mostly incurred by private insurers in 
America, those insurers merely disperse such costs amongst their 
customers not unlike the Spanish government passing costs onto 
taxpayers. This is a fair critique, and for the sake of argument, we can
 attempt to adjust for that.  </p><p> For 2011, premiums for 
employer-sponsored family-health coverage were roughly $15,500. (Paid 
largely by the employer) On average, workers, however, only paid about 
$4300 of that. For single (non-family) coverage, workers paid even less,
 with an average contribution of only about $950. [x] If we were to 
include one year’s worth of insurance premium contributions with the 
cost of this surgery, the cost in America would still only range from  
$3950 - $7300. That only represents 7.9% - 14.5% of our 2011 median 
household income, which is significantly less than Spain’s 43%. In fact,
 for the burden of a U.S. family to match that of Spain, we’d have to 
include, not only the out-of-pocket expense from the surgery, but also 
over 4 years of health insurance contributions. For individual coverage,
 we’d have to include 19.5 years of health insurance contributions! 
Luckily, our burden isn’t 43% of our median household income. </p><h2> WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?</h2><p>
 Yes, the absolute cost is lower in Spain than it is in America, but 
that cost represents a burden far greater than what we experience in the
 U.S.  Meanwhile, in the United States, depending on how you count it, 
people only pay an amount equivalent to about 6%, 7.9%, or 14.5% what 
they earn annually.  When Spain’s burden is 43%, which system sounds 
less burdensome to YOU?<br/> —————————-<br/> Sources: <br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.salaryexplorer.com%2Fsalary-survey.php%3Fjob%3D994%26jobtype%3D3%26gender%3Dm%26loctype%3D1%26loc%3D203&amp;h=JAQFvcvTOAQH7ZRfnwmS7NNEEu5HJUfydJQymIdu_t68lMg&amp;enc=AZPZyj0NReNb807keEKuTPW5Zc8ONlHriOBnqNjp_4pYOHA-Z4LNhac6xVepItYw1t2KPkJ9IHt6FFhn452_o29emowg4G2sX8LziIZCnJxlYMvjljOqi2xAcBvO2n67lrcMNaBS3BhRT4-S9adhoftpSDiUNCV5QAYq42UoiGwYp9-16owUA9UF6eEjZYunhPs&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.salaryexplorer.com/salary-survey.php…</a></p><p> <a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.npr.org%2Ftemplates%2Fstory%2Fstory.php%3FstoryId%3D112014770&amp;h=LAQEsg9VXAQFwotpcEQoZZK3NRwUun6wL2bDTRa5aBqd6vg&amp;enc=AZPCCdAPstZvalT4mAtoA46dEyUog5lwvXO4M0L4Oer3XGb6nPoovWD6IcujzshuZcmY-oJtDZg9x26JYmJHE7KnYwhqDefoFzLL2bFDHW1P91r2_fBqyuDAvKSQtYyK6VYcWd-o-Sc2nB0o5ZzyUekjnyPJEVtXZm2tntpyVjNccK8hDzKMtdR-dsWAVYbXB3Y&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php…</a></p><p> <a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ine.es%2Fen%2Fdaco%2Fdaco42%2Fetcl%2Fetcl0412_en.pdf&amp;h=OAQFGXKQPAQFwLOZpsxTntZ4lwKiqfQkh_uc5yobV6le0iA&amp;enc=AZMTgp-PsHVSHlhvH3WIDCJkEoutGi3xv4F-sz_s1S1C2PG9vVYS9Ck3iT-Rj2LBWv-q2aJlYNY4wW7aiWIHqD5OJ0eq3erC6i1er92ZGLYgbmqzOjBhU2SUP1opihR4zhqlKzRo3DCI5ce32QRfH6OIvUa8zr8IdTr1wmdzDs9YjyQtTD0JfRf45s3k1Y7XYy4&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/etcl/etcl0412_en.pdf</a></p><p> <a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fstats.oecd.org%2FIndex.aspx%3FDataSetCode%3DIDD&amp;h=cAQGSs6HyAQGkxsdSUp97tqc-deK1iQtU-A6Wqng-u8U0Rg&amp;enc=AZPGImFXgUez1viYoTMZGnhZvfozAfQUDpXN6aaMKD1tKwZ72SjKwc8hzQegbD76-J8ra8NOTQYunqDa98BxhRfPR8CFgYvWj4TrTvqA4Lf_xk-t9hUV3AMiZONtiV2mzOurb3w9f0Gp1VRiVa9SHRuO39JAzDANVYD0d_UsdZ5Fmhi0Tn4jIuTK--l5HnlJDYU&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=IDD</a></p><p> <a href="http://health.costhelper.com/hip-replacement.htmlanted=all&amp;_r=0" rel="nofollow">http://health.costhelper.com/hip-replacement.htmlanted=all&amp;…</a></p><p> <a href="http://www.justlanded.com/english/Spain/Articles/Jobs/Doctors" rel="nofollow">http://www.justlanded.com/engli…/Spain/Articles/Jobs/Doctors</a></p><p>
 [x] (*2011 figures were approximated. Source actually only provided 
2010 and 2012 figures, but indicated what the growth rate was in that 
time, allowing for a 2011 approximation.) <br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncsl.org%2Fresearch%2Fhealth%2Fhealth-insurance-premiums.aspx&amp;h=FAQHapbpsAQFykomHtGgO8DrldpKuIic20h5uHCEPZgnHWQ&amp;enc=AZNqcOcGPkBVqFWVSz3hAFnSKvBO03iHt45d338nwQUDWxnIBzFFM4xZ3WIzIEB7h6sOurfyeTWesd7NaKP7X7_a83CMCo_ihSN0P8hvQiidD6P082gpBNinoDVXv9sBkmvWdhYpBjHp3N8KtSLWL_TXU7I37nwFwNxU1qmKV-17rhCKAKohXfgNTXgTD6zlJvw&amp;s=1" rel="nofollow">http://www.ncsl.org/resear…/…/health-insurance-premiums.aspx</a></p></blockquote>

libertybill: cuzyouwanttotakemypicture: Yep From WACTHE MISLEADING CLAIM: “The average hip replacement in the USA costs $40,364. In Spa...

Bernie Sanders, Click, and cnn.com: So You've Seen This CNN Article Claiming An Economist Just Vetted Sanders' Plan And Announced It Would Be Wildly Successful? ANNUAL GDP GROWTH MEDIAN INCOME UP BY 52% $22,000 ouroney 24% POVERTY 6% 14.8% UNEMPLOYMENT 38% "currenty: 4.9% Under Sanders, income and jobs would soar, economist says Problem Is. That Economist Just Happens To Be The Same One Who AUTHORED Bernie's Plan. ALL HE DID WAS PROCLAIM HIS OWN IDEAS TO BE GREAT! THAT'S NOT A LEGIT VETTING PROCESS! <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://redbloodedamerica.tumblr.com/post/139003454115">redbloodedamerica</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://gop-tea-pub.tumblr.com/post/139002706652">gop-tea-pub</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p>This popular CNN article has been circulating recently, claiming that an economist has studied Bernie Sanders’ plans and concluded that they’d be an astounding success. [a]<br/><br/> Here’s the problem, THAT economist happens to be the same exact economist who AUTHORED Bernie’s proposal. Published back on July 31, 2013, rogue economist Gerald Friedman, a man who proudly refers to himself as a “heterodox economist,” [b] which means that he doesn’t adhere to widely accepted economic beliefs, released a healthcare proposal that involved scrapping the entire private health insurance system in favor of government managed health insurance. [c] That plan was based off of a hypothetical one year budget. Then, a few years later, when Bernie Sanders decided to run for president, Sanders adopted this proposal as “his” plan for healthcare. Friedman then revised the plan to make it a 10 year proposal, since presidential budgets are often 10 year plans. A Huffington Post article, written by Friedman, lays out his 10 year plan as he attempts to defend Sanders from earlier attacks. [d]<br/><br/> Then comes this latest article where CNN acts almost as though Sanders just had his plans thoroughly vetted by an impartial economist.  He CLEARLY didn’t. <br/><br/> This article, on the grounds that it’s a conflict of interest, shouldn’t be regarded as independently verified vindication of Bernie’s plans. It’s not legit. Sanders has ALWAYS had this one rogue economist on his side. This CNN article is the equivalent of WAC authoring a “jobs-boosting” proposal back in 2013, where Rand Paul then chooses to adopt it as “his” presidential plan around 2015, then someone questions whether or not the plan would actually work as advertised, so WAC writes an essay defending what is now referred to as “Rand Paul’s Plan,” and CNN references that new essay with the narrative, “independent researchers confirm Paul’s plan would work,” despite it really just being us declaring our own ideas to be sound. THAT would NOT be independent verification, and neither is Friedman declaring his own ideas to be wonderful.<br/><br/> Let’s end with some important notes, some of which were even found in the CNN article:<br/><br/> “Other economists feel that Friedman’s analysis is overly optimistic, saying it would be difficult to achieve that level of economic prosperity. [Furthermore], last week, the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget said Sanders’ plan to pay for health care would fall short by at least $3 trillion.” [a] Lastly, even Paul Krugman, of all people, has come out against Sanders’ plan, acknowledging that it would require so much additional tax revenue that the middle class (not just the wealthy) would see tax increases. He also points out that those with high quality private insurance would have to trade it in for mere satisfactory insurance via the the proposed single payer system. [e]<br/><br/> Regardless of the details, which can be debated at length another time, one should not be tricked into thinking that Sanders just had his plan successfully vetted and vindicated. He didn’t. All that happened was ONE rogue economist announced he thought his own ideas were really smart.<br/> ————————-<br/> Sources:<br/> [a]<br/><a href="http://money.cnn.com/2016/02/08/news/economy/sanders-income-jobs/index.html">http://money.cnn.com/2016/02/08/news/economy/sanders-income-jobs/index.html</a><br/><br/> [b]<br/><a href="http://www.pnhp.org/sites/default/files/Funding%20HR%20676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf">http://www.pnhp.org/sites/default/files/Funding%20HR%20676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf</a><br/><br/> [c]<br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pnhp.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2FFunding%2520HR%2520676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf&amp;h=6AQE18lVO&amp;enc=AZPJb2tURL4hl7HsxW9zy7_RszEMSPot0Kn-nYZ5wI2PPiGBqSRUiYz_uucz05mzbr5vYkOa94fSDuknU3-QqWxvPDiVBnHTVVjnd38uSmJqHODBbCS_KcwH1wVNLxZFJ0AhS9JxzUUxv1Se2bX4UhJvQLtQU8H07v_otMpRSZ606wzhnjtPT_ttRQllRN0_4zM&amp;s=1">http://www.pnhp.org/sites/default/files/Funding%20HR%20676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf</a><br/><br/> [d]<br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fm.huffpost.com%2Fus%2Fentry%2Fthe-wall-street-journal-k_b_8143062.html&amp;h=LAQE05D6K&amp;enc=AZMfGZXQvt08iFQktBja-5jFJU6sk6N4vua6LVJm7S5q86EAFjcq_PPAeFfc4DxZFbQ3yFjy1qizaNQOi8RDiLQfNpYn9K6NAmbHPekay1bhAGT1VbNXZ25iIkqgJkSb-Mh4q7aPph3qExhcq1UEwQqpVtgDcqY2WKhHLef7iIUBxbkYZxd8ymIYfzfqjW0ZRF8&amp;s=1">http://m.huffpost.com/us/entry/the-wall-street-journal-k_b_8143062.html</a><br/><br/> [e]<br/><a href="http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/opinion/health-reform-realities.html?action=click&amp;pgtype=Homepage&amp;clickSource=story-heading&amp;module=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;region=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;WT.nav=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;_r=0&amp;referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.politicususa.com%2F2016%2F01%2F18%2Fpaul-krugman-hillary-bernie-wrong-healthcare.html">http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/opinion/health-reform-realities.html?action=click&amp;pgtype=Homepage&amp;clickSource=story-heading&amp;module=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;region=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;WT.nav=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;_r=0&amp;referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.politicususa.com%2F2016%2F01%2F18%2Fpaul-krugman-hillary-bernie-wrong-healthcare.html</a><br/><br/><a href="https://www.facebook.com/hashtag/feelthebern">#feelthebern</a><br/></p> </blockquote> <p><figure class="tmblr-full" data-orig-height="185" data-orig-width="450"><img src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/b924d6f029001c2379f1761088d11c50/tumblr_inline_o2aojwv1Ws1r1jtxd_500.gif" data-orig-height="185" data-orig-width="450"/></figure></p> </blockquote>
Bernie Sanders, Click, and cnn.com: So You've Seen This CNN Article Claiming An
 Economist Just Vetted Sanders' Plan And
 Announced It Would Be Wildly Successful?
 ANNUAL
 GDP GROWTH
 MEDIAN INCOME
 UP BY
 52%
 $22,000
 ouroney 24%
 POVERTY
 6%
 14.8%
 UNEMPLOYMENT
 38%
 "currenty: 4.9%
 Under Sanders, income and jobs would soar, economist
 says
 Problem Is. That Economist Just Happens To Be
 The Same One Who AUTHORED Bernie's Plan.
 ALL HE DID WAS PROCLAIM HIS OWN IDEAS TO BE
 GREAT! THAT'S NOT A LEGIT VETTING PROCESS!
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://redbloodedamerica.tumblr.com/post/139003454115">redbloodedamerica</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://gop-tea-pub.tumblr.com/post/139002706652">gop-tea-pub</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>This
 popular CNN article has been circulating recently, claiming that an 
economist has studied Bernie Sanders’ plans and concluded that they’d be
 an astounding success. [a]<br/><br/> Here’s the problem, THAT economist 
happens to be the same exact economist who AUTHORED Bernie’s proposal. 
Published back on July 31, 2013, rogue economist Gerald Friedman, a man 
who proudly refers to himself as a “heterodox economist,”
 [b] which means that he doesn’t adhere to widely accepted economic 
beliefs, released a healthcare proposal that involved scrapping the 
entire private health insurance system in favor of government managed 
health insurance. [c] That plan was based off of a hypothetical one year
 budget. Then, a few years later, when Bernie Sanders decided to run for
 president, Sanders adopted this proposal as “his” plan for healthcare. 
Friedman then revised the plan to make it a 10 year proposal, since 
presidential budgets are often 10 year plans. A Huffington Post article,
 written by Friedman, lays out his 10 year plan as he attempts to defend
 Sanders from earlier attacks. [d]<br/><br/> Then comes this latest 
article where CNN acts almost as though Sanders just had his plans 
thoroughly vetted by an impartial economist.  He CLEARLY didn’t. <br/><br/>
 This article, on the grounds that it’s a conflict of interest, 
shouldn’t be regarded as independently verified vindication of Bernie’s 
plans. It’s not legit. Sanders has ALWAYS had this one rogue economist 
on his side. This CNN article is the equivalent of WAC authoring a 
“jobs-boosting” proposal back in 2013, where Rand Paul then chooses to 
adopt it as “his” presidential plan around 2015, then someone questions 
whether or not the plan would actually work as advertised, so WAC writes
 an essay defending what is now referred to as “Rand Paul’s Plan,” and 
CNN references that new essay with the narrative, “independent 
researchers confirm Paul’s plan would work,” despite it really just 
being us declaring our own ideas to be sound. THAT would NOT be 
independent verification, and neither is Friedman declaring his own 
ideas to be wonderful.<br/><br/> Let’s end with some important notes, some of which were even found in the CNN article:<br/><br/>
 “Other economists feel that Friedman’s analysis is overly optimistic, 
saying it would be difficult to achieve that level of economic 
prosperity. [Furthermore], last week, the Committee for a Responsible 
Federal Budget said Sanders’ plan to pay for health care would fall 
short by at least $3 trillion.” [a] Lastly, even Paul Krugman, of all 
people, has come out against Sanders’ plan, acknowledging that it would 
require so much additional tax revenue that the middle class (not just 
the wealthy) would see tax increases. He also points out that those with
 high quality private insurance would have to trade it in for mere 
satisfactory insurance via the the proposed single payer system. [e]<br/><br/>
 Regardless of the details, which can be debated at length another time,
 one should not be tricked into thinking that Sanders just had his plan 
successfully vetted and vindicated. He didn’t. All that happened was ONE
 rogue economist announced he thought his own ideas were really smart.<br/> ————————-<br/> Sources:<br/> [a]<br/><a href="http://money.cnn.com/2016/02/08/news/economy/sanders-income-jobs/index.html">http://money.cnn.com/2016/02/08/news/economy/sanders-income-jobs/index.html</a><br/><br/> [b]<br/><a href="http://www.pnhp.org/sites/default/files/Funding%20HR%20676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf">http://www.pnhp.org/sites/default/files/Funding%20HR%20676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf</a><br/><br/> [c]<br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pnhp.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2FFunding%2520HR%2520676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf&amp;h=6AQE18lVO&amp;enc=AZPJb2tURL4hl7HsxW9zy7_RszEMSPot0Kn-nYZ5wI2PPiGBqSRUiYz_uucz05mzbr5vYkOa94fSDuknU3-QqWxvPDiVBnHTVVjnd38uSmJqHODBbCS_KcwH1wVNLxZFJ0AhS9JxzUUxv1Se2bX4UhJvQLtQU8H07v_otMpRSZ606wzhnjtPT_ttRQllRN0_4zM&amp;s=1">http://www.pnhp.org/sites/default/files/Funding%20HR%20676_Friedman_7.31.13_proofed.pdf</a><br/><br/> [d]<br/><a href="http://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fm.huffpost.com%2Fus%2Fentry%2Fthe-wall-street-journal-k_b_8143062.html&amp;h=LAQE05D6K&amp;enc=AZMfGZXQvt08iFQktBja-5jFJU6sk6N4vua6LVJm7S5q86EAFjcq_PPAeFfc4DxZFbQ3yFjy1qizaNQOi8RDiLQfNpYn9K6NAmbHPekay1bhAGT1VbNXZ25iIkqgJkSb-Mh4q7aPph3qExhcq1UEwQqpVtgDcqY2WKhHLef7iIUBxbkYZxd8ymIYfzfqjW0ZRF8&amp;s=1">http://m.huffpost.com/us/entry/the-wall-street-journal-k_b_8143062.html</a><br/><br/> [e]<br/><a href="http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/opinion/health-reform-realities.html?action=click&amp;pgtype=Homepage&amp;clickSource=story-heading&amp;module=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;region=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;WT.nav=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;_r=0&amp;referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.politicususa.com%2F2016%2F01%2F18%2Fpaul-krugman-hillary-bernie-wrong-healthcare.html">http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/opinion/health-reform-realities.html?action=click&amp;pgtype=Homepage&amp;clickSource=story-heading&amp;module=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;region=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;WT.nav=opinion-c-col-right-region&amp;_r=0&amp;referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.politicususa.com%2F2016%2F01%2F18%2Fpaul-krugman-hillary-bernie-wrong-healthcare.html</a><br/><br/><a href="https://www.facebook.com/hashtag/feelthebern">#feelthebern</a><br/></p>
</blockquote>
<p><figure class="tmblr-full" data-orig-height="185" data-orig-width="450"><img src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/b924d6f029001c2379f1761088d11c50/tumblr_inline_o2aojwv1Ws1r1jtxd_500.gif" data-orig-height="185" data-orig-width="450"/></figure></p>
</blockquote>

redbloodedamerica: gop-tea-pub: This popular CNN article has been circulating recently, claiming that an economist has studied Bernie Sa...

Books, Church, and Doctor: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>FYI.</p>
Books, Church, and Doctor: In ancient Egypt, any books found
 in ships coming into port, would be
 brought immediately to the library of
 Alexandria and be copied. The
 original would be kept in the library
 and the copy given back to the
 owner.
 Ultrafacts.tumblr.com
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p>
</blockquote>
<p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>but why</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p>
</blockquote>
<p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p>
</blockquote>
<p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p>
<p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p>
<p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p>
<p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p>
<p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p>
<p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>FYI.</p>

agentsama: slvrnightx: ultrafacts: aussietory: third-way-is-best-way: tuxedoandex: kvotheunkvothe: ultrafacts: Source For more facts...

Books, Church, and Doctor: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>#getrekt</p>
Books, Church, and Doctor: In ancient Egypt, any books found
 in ships coming into port, would be
 brought immediately to the library of
 Alexandria and be copied. The
 original would be kept in the library
 and the copy given back to the
 owner.
 Ultrafacts.tumblr.com
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p>
</blockquote>
<p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>but why</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p>
</blockquote>
<p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p>
</blockquote>
<p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p>
<p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p>
<p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p>
<p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p>
<p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p>
<p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p>
</blockquote>

<p>#getrekt</p>

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