masterpiece The Age of Louis XIV It is not Louis XIV that we propose to write we have a wider s view We shall endeavor to depict for posterity n of a single man but the spirit of men in the most enliy age the world has ever seen In seeking to describe thhe ity of past human experience Voltaire initiated the m merely the talian comic opera to new heights with The Marriage of Figaro based on a Parisian play of the 1780s in which a valet outwits and outsings his noble employers and Don Giovanni a black comedy about the havoc Don Giovanni wrought on earth before he descended into hell The Marriage of Figaro The Magic Flute and Don Giovanni are three of the world's greatest operas Mozart composed with an ease of melody and a blend of grace precision and emotion that arguably no one has ever excelled Haydn remarked to Mozart's father that your son is the great est composer known to me either in person or by reputation not the The weaknesses of these philosophe historians stem from their preoccupations as philosophes Following the als of the classics that dominated their minds the philo Sought to instruct as well as entertain Their goal w civilize their age and history could play a role by t its lessons according to their vision Their emphasis ence and reason and their dislike of Christianity made less than sympathetic to the period we call the Middle This is particularly noticeable in the other great masterpe eighteenth-century historiography the six-volume De and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon 7- Although Gibbon thought that the decline of Rome had n causes he portrayed the growth of Christianity reason for Rome's eventual collapse Like some of the p sophes Gibbon believed in the idea of progress and in rell ing on the decline and fall of Rome expressed his optim about the future of European civilization and the abliny ideal of social history Was to THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOVEL The eighteenth century was also decisive in the development of the novel The novel was not a completely new literary genre but grew out of the medieval romances and the picaresque stories of the sixteenth century The English are credited with establishing the modern novel as the chief vehicle for fiction writing With no estab- lished rules the novel was open to much experimentation It also proved especially attractive to women readers and women revea DT he a5 a m Samuel Richardson 1689-1761 was a printer by trade and did not turn to writing until his fifties His first novel Pamela or Virtue Rewarded focused on a servant girl's resistance to numer- ous seduction attempts by her master Finally by reading the girl's letters describing her feelings about his efforts the master realizes that she has a good mind as well as an attractive body and marries her Virtue is rewarded Pamela won Richardson a writers Europeans to avoid the fate of the Romans A London Coffee spread throughout patrons of coffeeho engage in business make bids on com The High Culture of the Eighteenth Century large audience as he appealed to the growing cult of sensibility in the eighteenth century-the taste for the sentimental and emotional Samuel Johnson another great English writer of the century and an even greater wit remarked If you were to read Richardson for the story you would hang yourself But you must read him for the sentiment Reacting against the moral seriousness of Richardson Henry Fielding 1707-1754 wrote novels about people with- out scruples who survived by their wits His best work was The History of Tom Jones a Foundling a lengthy novel about the numerous adventures of a young scoundrel Fielding presented scenes of English life from the hovels of London to the country houses of the aristocracy In a number of hilarious episodes he described characters akin to real types in English society Although he emphasized action rather than inner feeling Field- ing did his own moralizing by attacking the hypocrisy of his age Historians and cultural anthropologists have grown acc tomed to distinguishing between a civilization's high cultu and its popular culture Whereas high culture usually refe Its goal was to ies schools and tea-tables and c intellectual goa instruct and en to the literary and artistic world of the educated and wealth ruling classes popular culture refers to the written and unwn ten lore of the masses most of which is passed down orally the eighteenth century European high culture consisted of learned world of theologians scientists philosophers intelle tuals poets and dramatists for whom Latin remained a rm international language Their work was supported by a wealth and literate lay group the most important of whom were the landed aristocracy and the wealthier upper classes in the cites Especially noticeable in the eighteenth century was expansion of both the reading public and publishing One study revealed that French publishers were issuing about su teen hundred titles yearly in the 1780s up from three hundn titles in 1750 Though many of these titles were still aimed a small ily marriage an to women Som at women suc also edited by by female writ Along with printed in Lor lish towns had cial features t THE WRITING OF HISTORY The philosophes were respon- sible for creating a revolution in the writing of history Their secular orientation caused them to eliminate the role of God in coffeehouse the atmosphe of the educated elite many were also directed o groups the new reading public of the middle classes which include women and even urban artisans The growth of publishing houses made it possible for authors to make money from the works and be less dependent on wealthy patrons An important aspect of the growth of publishing and readi in the eighteenth century was the development of mag for the general public Great Britain an important cen the new magazines saw 25 periodicals published in 1700 1760 and 158 in 1780 Although short-lived the best known w Joseph Addison and Richard Steele's Spectator begun in in history and freed them to concentrate on events themselves and search for causal relationships in the natural world Earlier the humanist historians of the Renaissance had also placed their histories in purely secular settings but not with the same intensity and complete removal of God The philosophe-historians also broadened the scope of history from the humanists' preoccupation with politics Politics still predominated in the work of Enlightenment his- torians but they also paid attention to economic social intel- lectual and cultural developments As Voltaire exlained in his The fine Ge leaving his or Chocola for tis a So least to He News reac opening th they were the Coffee no hearing CHAPTER 17 The Eighteenth Century An Age of Enlightenment 516 res reddir reddit Meme

Empire

Fall

Future

Girls

God

Life

Marriage

Money

News

period

Politics

reddit

Relationships

Saw

Work

Vision

Best

Black

Business

Coffee

Earth

Goal

Good

History

Intel

London

Magic

Mozart

Opera

Revolution

Search

Spirit

The General

The Middle

Urban

Women

World

Britain

English

French

Hilarious

International

Medieval

Roman

Rome

Christianity

Comedy

Credited

Experience

Fate

Fiction

Hell

Hypocrisy

Mind

Philo

Portrayed

Reason

Thought

Voltaire

Single

STEM

According

als

civilization

idea

another

her

cites

tom jones

human

resistance

tea

latin

creating a

com

classics

episodes

acc

the master

renaissance

roman empire

who

comic

him

towns

tables

language

grace

goa

great britain

culture

one

cult

romans

down

group

enlightenment

printer

following

play

ing

est

mag

flute

teen

henry

xiv

man

open

endeavor

don

havoc

haydn

three

reading

a single man

she

own

did

them

first

don giovanni

the world

master

the the

make

they

som

public

melody

wit

new

you

call

story

modern

real

ideal

development

society

person

the spirit

samuel johnson

general

samuel

collapse

works

scope

son

the magic flute

a&m

action

secular

houses

genre

aspect

creating

still

hearing

made

akin

for

marriage of figaro

valet

edward

study

vehicle

social

moral

spread

giovanni

wealth

events

fall of rome

humanist

history of

scientists

fine

intellectual

european

letters

economic

philosophers

in english

servant

aristocracy

spectator

chapter

read

popular

this

the best

high

great

like

joseph

men

tom

country

this is

greatest

people

father

female

well

turn

though

finally

possible

masterpiece

concentrate

reputation

feeling

focused

seen

learned

composed

leaving

as well

black comedy

lengthy

survived

sentimental

attention

whom

same

richard

their

ever

feelings

lore

decisive

usually

although

scruples

noble

artistic

orally

writ

particularly

depict

based

scoundrel

were

sentiment

rather

parisian

emphasis

merely

precision

literate

posterity

age of enlightenment

volume

orientation

century

novel

wrought

sought

sympathetic

audience

scenes

intensity

dislike

no

growing

much

ten

ily

field

large

short

small

chocola

fifties

writing

propose

attempts

entertain

completely

attractive

with-the-same

won

out

paid

natural

seduction

jones

made-it

grown

consisted

emotional

young

opening

richardson

louis

And

Other

Body

Reacting

Writer

Progress

Emotion

Age

Both

Number

Elite

The Future

The New

That

Johnson

But

Not

Rules

Pamela

Growth

Writers

Best Work

Single Man

Make Money

Hang Yourself

Taste

World Of

The

Composer

Not The

The History Of

Trade

A Good

From

Important

Hang

Past

Your

Literary

Worlds Greatest

Its

Many

Torians

Write

Characters

Mind As Well

Lor

The Six

Virtue

Especially

Role

These

Decline And Fall

Natural World

Cen

The P

Gibbon

Cultural

Engage

Revealed

Addison

Was

With

Expansion

Middle

In A

Popular Culture

Blend

Are

Have

Edited

Attacking

Stories

If You

Authors

The Taste

Lived

Had

Also

Either

Settings

Res

Which

About

View

Chief

Between

Throughout

Louis Xiv

Wits

Complete

Has

Groups

The Renaissance

Dependent

Before

Describe

Most

Against

Coffeehouse

Freed

Must

The Great

Removal

Yourself

The Most Important

Minds

Lessons

Educated

Inner

Than

Believed

Avoid

Weaknesses

Titles

Themselves

Readers

No One

Human Experience

Ruling

Known

Along

Heights

Even

Wealthy

His

Wider

Some

Lay

Seeking

Worlds

Masses

Preoccupation

Classes

Printed

Could

Joseph Addison

Arguably

Earlier

Ease

Fielding

Foundling

Grew

Ies

Ity

Less

Me Either

Ous

Periodicals

The Same

A Single

About The

Age Of

But The

Dominated

Efforts

Ence

Fiction Writing

For The

Have A

His Best

Historians

History And

Hundn

In The

Into

Is Not

It Is

Landed

Less Than

Make Money From

Most Important

Not A

On A

Out Of

Passed

Publishing

Realizes

Six

Written

A Number Of

According To

Along With

Begun

Figaro

Revea

Talian

As Well As

By Trade

Causal

Civilize

Comic Opera

Decline

Directed

Distinguishing

Eliminate

Engage In

Eventual

Experimentation

Features

Greater

Historiography

Hundred

In Business

Include

Initiated

Instruct

Least

Lish

Noticeable

Numerous

Of His

On The Decline

Patrons

Philosophe

Picaresque

Published

Purely

Rather Than

Sensibility

Seriousness

Shall

Short Lived

Social History

Stem From

The Country

The English

The General Public

The Masses

The Most

The Natural World

The Other

The Works

To Me

would

his first

types

until

me

was a

ever seen

adventures

m

proved

one has

you must

novels

s

wrote

man but

schools

they were

we have

could play

an important

it possible

tis

she has

like some

upper

at

his own

some of

developments

suc

their minds

causes

a

it

found ON 2019-11-13 21:23:53 BY astrologymemes.com

source: reddit