Bertrand Russell concerning fascism The first step in a fascist movement is the combination under an energetic leader of a number of men who possess more than the average share of leisure brutality and stupidity The next step is to fascinate fools and muzzle the intelligent by emotional excitement on the one hand and terrorism on the other This technique is as old as the hills it was practised in almost every Greek city and the moderns have only enlarged its scale But what I am concerned with is the reaction of modern liberal sentiment to this new attack on liberty Does the principle of free speech require us to put no obstacle in the way of those who advocate its suppression? Does the principle of toleration require us to tolerate those who advocate intolerance? Public opinion among those who dislike fascism is divided on these questions and has not arrived at any clear theory from which consistent answers could be derived — Bertrand Russell Freedom and Government 1940 This paper was published first in Freedom Its Meaning published in 1940 In addition to Russell there were forty-one other contributors including John Dewey Alfred North Whitehead and Albert Einstein Image Candid photograph of Benito Mussolini holding his nose Benito Mussolini 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945 was an Italian politician journalist and leader of the National Fascist Party ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943 He ruled constitutionally until 1925 when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship Known as Il Duce the leader Mussolini was one of the key figures in the creation of fascism As a young man Mussolini proclaimed himself to be an atheist and several times tried to shock an audience by calling on God to strike him dead He denounced socialists who were tolerant of religion or who had their children baptized He believed that science had proven there was no God and that the Historical Jesus was ignorant and mad He considered religion a disease of the psyche and accused Christianity of promoting resignation and cowardice Mussolini was an admirer of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche On his 60th birthday Mussolini received a gift from Hitler of a complete twenty-four volume set of the works of Nietzsche Meme

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